Prosci (short for "Professional Scientists" - read more on their website) is the world's leading research company in change management. Since 1998, they have conducted extensive studies on change work with over 4,500 participants.

As one of many results from their research work, they have launched the ADKAR model, which summarizes the steps an individual goes through on their way to sustainable change, but which can also be applied to the various phases of a change work.


From Wikipedia:
The Prosci ADKAR Model is an individual change framework created by Jeff Hiatt. ADKAR is an acronym that represents the five building blocks of successful change for an individual: 


  1. Awareness of the need for change
  2. Desire to participate and support in the change
  3. Knowledge of what to do during and after the change
  4. Ability to realize or implement the change as required
  5. Reinforcement to ensure the results of a change continue


The ADKAR Model is prescriptive and goal-oriented, each milestone must be achieved to define success. It uses a 1 - 5 scale to determine how strongly an individual meets the requirements of each milestone. If a person scores a three or below, that specific step must be addressed before moving forward, Prosci defines this as a barrier point.


From the Prosci web site:
Understanding change as a process
Fundamental to the ADKAR Model is this: Change occurs as a process, not an event. And it can be difficult and complex to understand. Breaking down change into distinct elements helps us understand the process of change and how to manage it. The theory of three distinct phases of change has roots in works from anthropologist Arnold Van Gennep in 1909 to Kurt Lewin in 1948 and William Bridges in 1980. 

The three states of change—current state, transition state, and future state—provide a powerful framework for the process-oriented approach of the ADKAR Model. The model clearly establishes how an individual moves through the change process, from their current state to their future state, and provides the insight needed for successful organizational change. 

The ADKAR model applied to New2change's generic change process
To move out of the current state, an individual needs awareness of the need for change and a desire to participate in and support the change. 
Awareness of the need for change
Many change projects are stillborn in an environment of satisfied employees. Without an understanding that change is necessary, the attention and sacrifices needed will not be made. When the change is to be implemented in the organization, it is therefore important to first identify, formulate and communicate the important reasons for the entire journey of change - which makes it clear that change from the current is necessary and urgent.
Desire to support the change
Step two is to identify and highlight everything that builds motivation in managers and employees to want to enter into change - an attractive vision, committed managers and other change leaders, etc.
Knowledge of how to change
By building on with education and training, you give managers and employees the necessary knowledge about how to change.
Ability to demonstrate skills and behaviors
With the right structures and support, it is then possible for managers and employees to apply their knowledge and build the necessary skills and ability to change their behaviors in everyday life.
Reinforcement to make change stick
In order for the implemented behavior change to be permanent, the change needs to be strengthened and anchored, so that the new behavior becomes the "new normal".